eBPF for Windows

eBPF is a well-known technology for providing programmability and agility, especially for extending an
OS kernel, for use cases such as DoS protection and observability. This project is a work-in-progress that
allows using existing eBPF
toolchains and APIs familiar in the Linux ecosystem to be used on top of Windows. That is, this project
takes existing eBPF projects as submodules and adds the layer in between to make them run on top of Windows.

New to eBPF?

See our basic eBPF tutorial and our
tutorial on debugging eBPF verification failures.

Architectural Overview

The following diagram shows the architecture of this project and related components:

Architectural Overview

As shown in the diagram, existing eBPF toolchains (clang, etc.) can be used to generate eBPF bytecode from
source code in various languages. Bytecode can be consumed by any application, or via bpftool or the Netsh command line tool, which use a shared library
that exposes Libbpf APIs,
though this is still in progress.

The eBPF bytecode is sent to a static verifier (the PREVAIL verifier)
that is hosted in a secure user-mode environment such as a system service (which is the case at present),
enclave, or trusted VM.
If the bytecode passes all the verifier checks, it can be either loaded into
an interpreter (from uBPF in the kernel-mode execution context), or
JIT compiled (via the uBPF JIT compiler) and have native code load
into the kernel-mode execution context (but see the FAQ at bottom about HVCI).

eBPF programs installed into the kernel-mode execution context can attach to various hooks (currently
two hooks so far: an XDP hook that integrates with the Windows Filtering Platform (WFP) layer 2 filtering, and a socket bind hook) and call various helper APIs exposed by the eBPF shim,
which internally wraps public Windows kernel APIs, allowing the use of eBPF on existing versions of Windows.
Many helpers already exist, and more hooks and helpers will be added over time.

Getting Started

This project supports eBPF on Windows 10 or later, and on Windows Server 2019 or later.
To try out this project, see our Getting Started Guide.

Want to help? We welcome contributions! See our Contributing guidelines.
Feel free to take a look at our Good First Issues
list if you’re looking for somewhere to start.

Want to chat with us? We have a:

For tracking Q&A and general discussion, we use Discussions
in github. This can also function similar to a mailing list if you subscribe to discussion notifications by
clicking “Watch” (or “Unwatch”) and selecting “Custom” -> “Discussions” (or by selecting “All Activity” if
you want to receive notifications about everything else too).

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is this a fork of eBPF?

No.

The eBPF for Windows project leverages existing projects, including
the IOVisor uBPF project and
the PREVAIL verifier,
running them on top of Windows by adding the Windows-specific hosting environment for that code.

2. Does this provide app compatibility with eBPF programs written for Linux?

The intent is to provide source code compatibility for code that uses common
hooks and helpers that apply across OS ecosystems.

Linux provides many hooks and helpers, some of which are very Linux specific (e.g., using
Linux internal data structs) that would not be applicable to other platforms.
Other hooks and helpers are generically applicable and the intent is to support them for eBPF
programs.

Similarly, the eBPF for Windows project exposes Libbpf APIs
to provide source code compatibility for applications that interact with eBPF programs.

3. Will eBPF work with HyperVisor-enforced Code Integrity (HVCI)?

eBPF programs can be run either in an interpreter or natively using a JIT compiler.

HyperVisor-enforced Code Integrity (HVCI)
is a mechanism
whereby a hypervisor, such as Hyper-V, uses hardware virtualization to protect kernel-mode processes against
the injection and execution of malicious or unverified code. Code integrity validation is performed in a secure
environment that is resistant to attack from malicious software, and page permissions for kernel mode are set and
maintained by the hypervisor.

Since a hypervisor doing such code integrity checks will refuse to accept code pages that aren’t signed by
a key that the hypervisor trusts, this does impact eBPF programs running natively. As such, when HVCI
is enabled, eBPF programs work fine in interpreted mode, but not when using JIT compilation.

GitHub

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